The announcement of a new purported clean source of energy came at a crucial time: Peterson , Fleischmann and Pons, backed by the solidity of their scientific credentials, repeatedly assured the journalists that cold fusion would solve environmental problems, and would provide a limitless inexhaustible source of clean energy, using only seawater as fuel. Although the experimental protocol had not been published, physicists in several countries attempted, and failed, to replicate the excess heat phenomenon.
The first paper submitted to Nature reproducing excess heat, although it passed peer review, was rejected because most similar experiments were negative and there were no theories that could explain a positive result; [notes 1]  this paper was later accepted for publication by the journal Fusion Technology. Nathan Lewis , professor of chemistry at the California Institute of Technology , led one of the most ambitious validation efforts, trying many variations on the experiment without success,  while CERN physicist Douglas R.
Morrison said that "essentially all" attempts in Western Europe had failed. Nevertheless, Fleischmann and Pons and a number of other researchers who found positive results remained convinced of their findings.
On 30 April cold fusion was declared dead by the New York Times. The Times called it a circus the same day, and the Boston Herald attacked cold fusion the following day. On 1 May the American Physical Society held a session on cold fusion in Baltimore, including many reports of experiments that failed to produce evidence of cold fusion. At the end of the session, eight of the nine leading speakers stated that they considered the initial Fleischmann and Pons claim dead, with the ninth, Johann Rafelski , abstaining.
Koonin of Caltech called the Utah report a result of " the incompetence and delusion of Pons and Fleischmann, " which was met with a standing ovation. Morrison , a physicist representing CERN , was the first to call the episode an example of pathological science. On 4 May, due to all this new criticism, the meetings with various representatives from Washington were cancelled. In July and November , Nature published papers critical of cold fusion claims.
The United States Department of Energy organized a special panel to review cold fusion theory and research. Nuclear fusion of the type postulated would be inconsistent with current understanding and, if verified, would require established conjecture, perhaps even theory itself, to be extended in an unexpected way.
The panel was against special funding for cold fusion research, but supported modest funding of "focused experiments within the general funding system". In March Michael H. Salamon, a physicist from the University of Utah , and nine co-authors reported negative results. The lawyer later apologized; Fleischmann defended the threat as a legitimate reaction to alleged bias displayed by cold-fusion critics. On 30 June the National Cold Fusion Institute closed after it ran out of funds;  it found no excess heat, and its reports of tritium production were met with indifference.
Mostly in the s, several books were published that were critical of cold fusion research methods and the conduct of cold fusion researchers. A review by a cold fusion proponent had calculated "about scientists" were still conducting research. These small but committed groups of cold fusion researchers have continued to conduct experiments using Fleischmann and Pons electrolysis setups in spite of the rejection by the mainstream community.
Cold fusion research continues today in a few specific venues, but the wider scientific community has generally marginalized the research being done and researchers have had difficulty publishing in mainstream journals. The researchers who continue acknowledge that the flaws in the original announcement are the main cause of the subject's marginalization, and they complain of a chronic lack of funding  and no possibilities of getting their work published in the highest impact journals.
A pariah field, cast out by the scientific establishment. Between cold fusion and respectable science there is virtually no communication at all. Cold fusion papers are almost never published in refereed scientific journals, with the result that those works don't receive the normal critical scrutiny that science requires.
On the other hand, because the Cold-Fusioners see themselves as a community under siege, there is little internal criticism. Experiments and theories tend to be accepted at face value, for fear of providing even more fuel for external critics, if anyone outside the group was bothering to listen. In these circumstances, crackpots flourish, making matters worse for those who believe that there is serious science going on here.
In August , the U. The report was released in The reviewers were "split approximately evenly" on whether the experiments had produced energy in the form of heat, but "most reviewers, even those who accepted the evidence for excess power production, 'stated that the effects are not repeatable, the magnitude of the effect has not increased in over a decade of work, and that many of the reported experiments were not well documented.
While significant progress has been made in the sophistication of calorimeters since the review of this subject in , the conclusions reached by the reviewers today are similar to those found in the review. The current reviewers identified a number of basic science research areas that could be helpful in resolving some of the controversies in the field, two of which were: The reviewers believed that this field would benefit from the peer-review processes associated with proposal submission to agencies and paper submission to archival journals.
Cold fusion researchers placed a "rosier spin"  on the report, noting that they were finally being treated like normal scientists, and that the report had increased interest in the field and caused "a huge upswing in interest in funding cold fusion research. The grant was intended to support research into the interactions of hydrogen with palladium, nickel or platinum under extreme conditions. Hubler, a nuclear physicist who worked for the Naval Research Laboratory for 40 years, was named director.
He claims that the new experiment has already seen "neutron emissions at similar levels to the observation". Since the Fleischmann and Pons announcement, the Italian national agency for new technologies, energy and sustainable economic development ENEA has funded Franco Scaramuzzi's research into whether excess heat can be measured from metals loaded with deuterium gas.
In —, the ENEA started a research program which claimed to have found excess power of up to percent, and in , ENEA hosted the 15th cold fusion conference.
We can't find any reason to propose more money for the coming year or for the future. In the s India stopped its research in cold fusion at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre because of the lack of consensus among mainstream scientists and the US denunciation of the research. Electrolysis cells can be either open cell or closed cell. In open cell systems, the electrolysis products, which are gaseous, are allowed to leave the cell.
In closed cell experiments, the products are captured, for example by catalytically recombining the products in a separate part of the experimental system. These experiments generally strive for a steady state condition, with the electrolyte being replaced periodically. There are also "heat-after-death" experiments, where the evolution of heat is monitored after the electric current is turned off.
The most basic setup of a cold fusion cell consists of two electrodes submerged in a solution containing palladium and heavy water. The electrodes are then connected to a power source to transmit electricity from one electrode to the other through the solution. The Fleischmann and Pons early findings regarding helium, neutron radiation and tritium were never replicated satisfactorily, and its levels were too low for the claimed heat production and inconsistent with each other.
An excess heat observation is based on an energy balance. Various sources of energy input and output are continuously measured. Under normal conditions, the energy input can be matched to the energy output to within experimental error. In experiments such as those run by Fleischmann and Pons, an electrolysis cell operating steadily at one temperature transitions to operating at a higher temperature with no increase in applied current.
Unable to produce excess heat or neutrons, and with positive experiments being plagued by errors and giving disparate results, most researchers declared that heat production was not a real effect and ceased working on the experiments.
Known instances of nuclear reactions, aside from producing energy, also produce nucleons and particles on readily observable ballistic trajectories. In support of their claim that nuclear reactions took place in their electrolytic cells, Fleischmann and Pons reported a neutron flux of 4, neutrons per second, as well as detection of tritium. The classical branching ratio for previously known fusion reactions that produce tritium would predict, with 1 watt of power, the production of 10 12 neutrons per second, levels that would have been fatal to the researchers.
Several medium and heavy elements like calcium, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper and zinc have been reported as detected by several researchers, like Tadahiko Mizuno or George Miley. The report presented to the United States Department of Energy DOE in indicated that deuterium-loaded foils could be used to detect fusion reaction products and, although the reviewers found the evidence presented to them as inconclusive, they indicated that those experiments did not use state-of-the-art techniques.
In response to doubts about the lack of nuclear products, cold fusion researchers have tried to capture and measure nuclear products correlated with excess heat.
In the report presented to the DOE in , the reviewers' opinion was divided on the evidence for 4 He; with the most negative reviews concluding that although the amounts detected were above background levels, they were very close to them and therefore could be caused by contamination from air. One of the main criticisms of cold fusion was that deuteron-deuteron fusion into helium was expected to result in the production of gamma rays —which were not observed and were not observed in subsequent cold fusion experiments.
Researchers in the field do not agree on a theory for cold fusion. This creates a high partial pressure, reducing the average separation of hydrogen isotopes.
However, the reduction in separation is not enough by a factor of ten to create the fusion rates claimed in the original experiment. Electron screening of the positive hydrogen nuclei by the negative electrons in the palladium lattice was suggested to the DOE commission,  but the panel found the theoretical explanations not convincing and inconsistent with current physics theories. Criticism of cold fusion claims generally take one of two forms: There are a couple of reasons why known fusion reactions are an unlikely explanation for the excess heat and associated cold fusion claims.
Because nuclei are all positively charged, they strongly repel one another. Paneth and Peters in the s already knew that palladium can absorb up to times its own volume of hydrogen gas, storing it at several thousands of times the atmospheric pressure. This was also the belief of geologist Palmer, who convinced Steven Jones that the helium-3 occurring naturally in Earth perhaps came from fusion involving hydrogen isotopes inside catalysts like nickel and palladium.
Huizenga says they had misinterpreted the Nernst equation , leading them to believe that there was enough pressure to bring deuterons so close to each other that there would be spontaneous fusions. Conventional deuteron fusion is a two-step process, [text 6] in which an unstable high-energy intermediary is formed:. Experiments have observed only three decay pathways for this excited-state nucleus, with the branching ratio showing the probability that any given intermediate follows a particular pathway.
Only about one in one million of the intermediaries decay along the third pathway, making its products comparatively rare when compared to the other paths.
The known rate of the decay process together with the inter-atomic spacing in a metallic crystal makes heat transfer of the 24 MeV excess energy into the host metal lattice prior to the intermediary 's decay inexplicable in terms of conventional understandings of momentum and energy transfer,  and even then there would be measurable levels of radiation. Cold fusion setups utilize an input power source to ostensibly provide activation energy , a platinum group electrode , a deuterium or hydrogen source, a calorimeter , and, at times, detectors to look for byproducts such as helium or neutrons.
Critics have variously taken issue with each of these aspects and have asserted that there has not yet been a consistent reproduction of claimed cold fusion results in either energy output or byproducts.
Some cold fusion researchers who claim that they can consistently measure an excess heat effect have argued that the apparent lack of reproducibility might be attributable to a lack of quality control in the electrode metal or the amount of hydrogen or deuterium loaded in the system.
Critics have further taken issue with what they describe as mistakes or errors of interpretation that cold fusion researchers have made in calorimetry analyses and energy budgets.
In , after Fleischmann and Pons had made their claims, many research groups tried to reproduce the Fleischmann-Pons experiment, without success. A few other research groups, however, reported successful reproductions of cold fusion during this time. Groups that did report successes found that some of their cells were producing the effect, while other cells that were built exactly the same and used the same materials were not producing the effect.
The claims of cold fusion, however, are unusual in that even the strongest proponents of cold fusion assert that the experiments, for unknown reasons, are not consistent and reproducible at the present time. Internal inconsistencies and lack of predictability and reproducibility remain serious concerns.
The Panel recommends that the cold fusion research efforts in the area of heat production focus primarily on confirming or disproving reports of excess heat. Some research groups initially reported that they had replicated the Fleischmann and Pons results but later retracted their reports and offered an alternative explanation for their original positive results. The calculation of excess heat in electrochemical cells involves certain assumptions.
Several researchers have described potential mechanisms by which this process could occur and thereby account for excess heat in electrolysis experiments.
Another assumption is that heat loss from the calorimeter maintains the same relationship with measured temperature as found when calibrating the calorimeter. The ISI identified cold fusion as the scientific topic with the largest number of published papers in , of all scientific disciplines. He tried to publish his theoretical paper "Cold Fusion: A Hypothesis" in Physical Review Letters , but the peer reviewers rejected it so harshly that he felt deeply insulted, and he resigned from the American Physical Society publisher of PRL in protest.
The number of papers sharply declined after because of two simultaneous phenomena: Consequently, cold fusion fell off the ISI charts. The Journal of Fusion Technology FT established a permanent feature in for cold fusion papers, publishing over a dozen papers per year and giving a mainstream outlet for cold fusion researchers.
When editor-in-chief George H. Miley retired in , the journal stopped accepting new cold fusion papers. The decline of publications in cold fusion has been described as a "failed information epidemic". Cold fusion reports continued to be published in a small cluster of specialized journals like Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Il Nuovo Cimento. In the Indian multidisciplinary journal Current Science published a special section devoted entirely to cold fusion related papers.
In the s, the groups that continued to research cold fusion and their supporters established non-peer-reviewed periodicals such as Fusion Facts , Cold Fusion Magazine , Infinite Energy Magazine and New Energy Times to cover developments in cold fusion and other fringe claims in energy production that were ignored in other venues. The internet has also become a major means of communication and self-publication for CF researchers. Cold fusion researchers were for many years unable to get papers accepted at scientific meetings, prompting the creation of their own conferences.
Attendees at some of the early conferences were described as offering no criticism to papers and presentations for fear of giving ammunition to external critics,  thus allowing the proliferation of crackpots and hampering the conduct of serious science.
With the founding in of the International Society for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science ISCMNS ,  the conference was renamed the International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science    — for reasons that are detailed in the subsequent research section above — but reverted to the old name in Since , the American Physical Society APS has included cold fusion sessions at their semiannual meetings, clarifying that this does not imply a softening of skepticism.
On 22—25 March , the American Chemical Society meeting included a four-day symposium in conjunction with the 20th anniversary of the announcement of cold fusion.
Researchers working at the U. Ne le prends pas mal mais je pense qu'il avait très envie que vos rapports dérapent plus en mode tactile Pour toi c'était sûrement une très belle amitié mais son comportement ses propos montrent que ce n'était pas réciproque.
Amitié homme femme j'y crois quand même mais c'est très très rare et, selon moi, il n'a pas agi en ami. Rien ne te force à rester en contact avec, même si sûrement de mettre un terme à cette relation doit être dur pour toi. De quelle amitié s'agit-il si les êtres ne sont pas libres dans leur expression?
Si la Transparence n'est pas au rendez-vous? Il m'apparaît que cette rencontré est magnifique pour voir ce qui bloque chez vous. A quoi je vois que j'ai rencontré un vrai ami dans ma vie!? Au fait qu'avec lui je suis Vraie.
Je suis Moi Face à un être, quand notre coeur et notre esprit est ouvert, C'est ce que ça favorise Or dans mon esprit, nous le sommes Absolument Tous, des amis quand même Quand bien même ne semblons nous pas nous connaître. Car les liens ne se créent pas à mon sens. Le Lien est déjà et qui fait qu'on ne se rencontre pas par hasard Et à quelle fin justement? A seule fin de délier les faux liens. Ceux qui emprisonnent le coeur, Étouffent la Parole. Et votre amitié est Parfaite pour vous permettre de dénouer tout ça.
A toi de voir ce qui t'empêche donc d'être libre face à lui. Il y a des peurs à reconnaître. Et les reconnaître c'est s'en libérer. Cela est la part de là magie de l'Amour. L'Amour qui Lui dans tout ça, est à l'origine de Toute forme de rencontre. En effet il a trop attendu et en a eu marre mtn les sentiments ca part pas comme ca Merci de vos commentaires et conseils, ça me fait réfléchir mais je sais pas si j'ai le "droit" de discuter de ça maintenant alors qu'il est en couple.
Je pense que j'ai pas assumée mes sentiments naissants Je suis très déçue de moi et de lui car même s'il se passe rien entre nous, je suis déçue qu'il n'ai pas été franc avec moi, de pas me dire qu'il avait rencontré quelqu'un.
C'est dommage si cette relation est gâchée. Si vous l'aimez dites lui. Voyez comment il réagit, si son histoire avec l'autre personne est sérieuse ou pas. C'est important de ne pas se laisser de regrets. Ma meilleure amie et moi avons mis les choses au clair dès le départ puis tout au long de notre relation qui dure depuis 30 ans!
ITER is located adjacent to the CEA Cadarache research centre where an outstanding scientific environment and technical infrastructure is already in place, including the Tore-Supra Tokamak and centre for fusion research. This site in Southern France was chosen for the ITER project in June by the seven ITER Members. CEA Cadarache has ambitions to become a major actor in alternative. Jan 30, · Learn how to conjugate rencontrer, a regular -er French verb. Here is a table of its simple conjugations. ITER is the world’s largest fusion experiment. Thirty-five nations are collaborating to build and operate the ITER Tokamak, the most complex machine ever designed, to prove that fusion is a viable source of large-scale, safe, and environmentally friendly energy for the planet.
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- Элли, зажав в зубах портативный фонарик. - Gratis? - по-прежнему увещевал бармен. Когда я летел домой, - сказал он, желая переменить тему, - я позвонил президенту университета.
Земле. Не существовало ровно никаких причин, по которым Алистра не должна была бы идти с ним, коли уж ей так этого захотелось.
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Plaisir des Yeux & Rencontres. 1, likes · 27 talking about this. Vous allez en prendre plein les yeux avec nos photos et vidéos, et avec notre site /5(2). Aug 22, · C'est un Yo-Kai puissant et rare, il est le Yo-Kai légendaire! -- Abonne-toi à la chaine YouTube Boing France: oneshop360.me Visite le. ITER is located adjacent to the CEA Cadarache research centre where an outstanding scientific environment and technical infrastructure is already in place, including the Tore-Supra Tokamak and centre for fusion research. This site in Southern France was chosen for the ITER project in June by the seven ITER Members. CEA Cadarache has ambitions to become a major actor in alternative.Plus...